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Further Research on Multiple Measures Placement Reform

Armstrong, W. B. (2000). “The association among student success in courses, placement test scores, student back ground data, and instructor grading practices.” Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 24(8), 681–695.

Barnett, E. A. & Reddy, V. (2017). College Placement Strategies Evolving Considerations and Practices: A CAPR Working Paper. New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Belfied, C. & Crosta, P. (2012). Predicting Success in College: The Importance of Placement Tests and High School Transcripts. (CCRC Working Paper No. 42) New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Bracco, K. R., Dadgar, M., Austin, K., Klarin, B., Broek, M., Finkelstein, N., Mundry, S., & Bugler, D. (2014). Exploring the Use of Multiple Measures for Placement into College-level Courses: Seeking alternatives or improvements to the use of a single standardized test. San Francisco, CA: WestEd.

Burdman, P. (2012). Where to Begin? The evolving role of placement exams for students starting college. Boston, MA: Jobs for the Future.

Center for Community College Student Engagement. (2016). Expectations meet reality: The underprepared student and community colleges. Austin, TX: The University of Texas at Austin, College of Education, Department of Educational Administration, Program in Higher Education Leadership.

Dadgar, M., Collins, L. & Schaefer, K. (2015). Placed for Success: How California Community Colleges can improve accuracy of placement in English and math courses, reduce remediation rates, and improve student success. Career Ladders Project.

Geiser, S., & Santelices, V. (2007). Validity of high school grades in predicting student success beyond the freshman year: High school records vs. standardized tests as indicators of four-year college outcomes (Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.6.07). Berkeley, CA: University of California at Berkeley.

Hassell, H., & Giordano, J.B. (2011). “First Year Composition Placement at Open-Admission, Two-Year Campuses: Changing Campus Culture, Institutional Practice and Student Success.” Open Words: Access and English Studies, 5 (2), 29-59.

Hiss, W.C., & Franks, V.W. (2014). Defining Promise: Optional Standardized Testing Policies in American College and University Admissions. National Association for College Admission Counseling.

Hodara, M., & Cox, M. (2016). Developmental education and college readiness at the University of Alaska (REL 2016–123). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Northwest.

Kosiewicz, H. (2014). Giving community college students voice: The effects of mathematics self-placement on academic achievement. Paper presented at the annual conference of Association for the Study of Higher Education, Washington, D.C.

Kurlander, D. M. (2014). Assessing the Promise of California’s Early Assessment Program for Community Colleges. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 44-46. At the time that this study was conducted, the Smarter Balanced assessment was not yet being used for the EAP.

Ngo, F., Kwon, W., Melguizo, T., Prather, G., & Johannes M. Bos. (2014). Course Placement in Developmental Mathematics: Do Multiple Measures Work? USC: Rossier School of Education.

Scott-Clayton, J. (2012). Do high-stakes placement exams predict college success? (CCRC Working Paper No. 41). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Scott-Clayton, J., & Stacey, G. W. (2015). Improving the accuracy of remedial placement. New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.


Organizations and Projects Conducting Ongoing Research on Multiple Measures Placement

The Center for the Analysis of Postsecondary Readiness (CAPR), a partnership between Teachers College, Columbia University and MDRC, has generated placement algorithms for a cohort of community colleges in New York State. For more information, explore

The Multiple Measures Assessment Project (MMAP) is a collaborative effort led by the RP Group and Educational Results Partnerships’ Cal-PASS Plus system to develop, pilot, and assess implementation of a statewide placement tool using multiple measures.For more information, explore

 Research for Action (RFA) has been studying multiple measures placement reform nationally over several years. For additional reports, explore